Sampling is the most important aspect of any research study. Whenever a researcher tries to do an investigation, he needs to collect data. To collect the right data, he must know the sampling techniques. There are broadly two types of sampling techniques in use. One is called probability sampling, and the other is called non-probability sampling. In today’s article, we will discuss the later type of sampling, i.e., non-probability. There will be a description of the 5 types of this sampling. So, why the wait? Let’s start the discussion right away.
What Is Non-Probability Sampling?
Before moving on to the types of this sampling, it is better that we define what non-probability sampling is. Its definition is going to set the base for the next discussion. So, non-probability sampling is a technique that uses non-random criteria to collect the research data and answer the research questions. This method of sampling is less stringent in that you select the study participants based on their subjective evaluation, not random. The non-probability technique of sampling depends heavily on the expertise of the researcher. The reason is that there is no defined set of rules like probability sampling in this method.
5 Major Types Of Non-Probability Sampling
After reading the information above, you know what this sampling type is. However, the main topic of our today’s discussion is to discuss the types of non-probability sampling. Hence, a brief description of its 5 major types is as follows:
The first and the most widely used type of non-probability method of sampling is known as convenience sampling. In this method, the researcher collects the respondents from a population only because they are available conveniently. Furthermore, he uses this method only because the samples are easy to recruit from the population. The three reasons why this method is so common are:
- Ease of collecting samples from an entire population
- Cost-effectiveness as it requires almost very little capital
- Speed of collecting samples from the population
Hence, these are the three reasons that make this sampling technique useful and effective.
The second type of non-probability sampling is quota sampling which is widely used in academic life. By using this method, the researcher selects the research participants from a predetermined method. Different sections of a population have pre-decided portions or units in the research study, called a quota. The quota mostly includes subgroups within a research population that has certain characteristics. In order to conduct this sampling, you must know that you should collect the samples in a totally non-random manner. The two types of this sampling are:
- Proportional. Used when the size of the population is known.
- Non-proportional. This sampling method is used when the size is unknown.
Consecutive sampling is the third type of non-probability method of sampling. It is pretty similar to convenience sampling, except for the fact that it is continuous. What does it mean by continuous? It means that in this type of non-probability sampling, the sampling remains continued. The researcher first selects a single respondent or a research group and studies it. After finishing the study on the first sample, he then moves on and selects the second sample. Hence, this is what consecutive sampling and this is how you do it.
As the name suggests, this sampling type is purely based on judgment. But the judgement of whom? Yes, the judgment of the researcher. The researcher keeps the research aims and objectives in front as well as the population. After this, he selects the samples on the basis of his knowledge and credibility. In simple words, the researcher selects only those people as samples who he sees fit for the research aims and objectives. This type of non-probability sampling is not for newbie researchers. Most expert researchers use this.
Snowball sampling is the last type of non-probability sampling. This type of sampling is used when it is difficult to reach or locate the research respondents. This sampling method works as a referral method of sampling. All the researcher needs to do is find one sample to research. After that, the found research participant leads the researcher to where he can find the same participants. Research on sex workers, drug traffickers, and smugglers is done using this type of sampling. Alternatively, this research could be on the consumers of a particular type of product, e.g., drugs.
To sum up, non-probability sampling is a great technique for selecting research participants for your research study. There are five major types of this broad sampling method. All 5 types are discussed in this guidepost in a detailed manner. Hence, read all of them and choose the one that suits your research.
Jonathan Naylor is the author of this article. He is working as Research Analyst with The Academic Papers UK, the best platform to buy dissertation online at a cheap price.
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